- The passive voice is used frequently. (= we are interested in the passive voice, not in who uses it.)
- The house was built in 1654. (= we are interested in the house, not in who built it.)
- The road is being repaired. (= we are interested in the road, not in the people who are doing the repairs.)
.برخی اوقات ما از ساختار مجهول به این دلیل استفاده میکنیم که شناختی نسبت به فاعل نداریم یا عمدا نمیخواهیم به فاعل اشاره کنیم
- I noticed that a window had been left open.
- Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
- All the cookies have been eaten.
- My car has been stolen!
جملات مجهول معمولا در انگلیسی رسمی بکار میروند بخصوص در رایتینگ . تبدیل جملات به معلوم رایتینگ شما را شفاف تر و درک آن را راحتتر میکند.
|A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words.||A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.|
|Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases.||A mass of gases wrap around our planet.|
|Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways.||The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.|
اگر شما مایل هستید که به فاعل در جملات مجهول اشاره کنید باید از حرف اضافه by در انتهای جمله استفاده کنید و سپس فاعل را اضافه میکنیم . ولی اگر فعال مشخص هست بهتر است از جملات معلوم استفاده شود.
|"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles.||The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".|
|The movie ET was directed by Spielberg.||Spielberg directed the movie ET.|
|This house was built by my father.||My father built this house.|
( FORMING THE PASSIVE VOICE ) فرمول ساخت جملات مجهول
جملات مجهول در زبان انگلیسی از دو بخش تشکیل میشوند : شکل درست فعل بودن و قسمت سوم فعل
The passive voice in English is composed of two elements:
the appropriate form of the verb 'to be' + past participle
|The house was built in 1899.||The house wasn't built in 1899.||Was the house built in 1899?||
Wasn't the house built in 1899?
|These houses were built in 1899.||These houses weren't built in 1899.||Were these houses built in 1899?||Weren't these houses built in 1899?|
TO CLEAN, PASSIVE VOICE
|Subject||+ to be (conjugated)||+ past participle||
+ rest of sentence
Simple present ( مجهول حال ساده )
|The house||is||cleaned||every day.|
Present continuous ( مجهول حال استمراری )
|The house||is being||cleaned||at the moment.|
Simple past ( مجهول گذشته ساده )
Past continuous ( مجهول گذشته استمراری )
|The house||was being||cleaned||last week.|
Present perfect ( مجهول حال کامل )
|The house||has been||cleaned||since you left.|
Past perfect ( مجهول گذشته کامل )
|The house||had been||cleaned||before they arrived.|
Future ( مجهول آینده )
|The house||will be||cleaned||next week.|
Future continuous ( مجهول آینده استمراری )
|The house||will be being||cleaned||tomorrow.|
Present conditional ( مجهول شرطی حال )
|The house||would be||cleaned||if they had visitors.|
Past conditional ( مجهول شرطی گذشته )
|The house||would have been||cleaned||if it had been dirty.|
Infinitive ( مجهول مصدر )
|The house||must be||cleaned||before we arrive.|
PASSIVE VOICE WITH INFINITIVES
The infinitive passive voice is used after modal verbs and other most verbs normally followed by an infinitive.
- You have to be tested on your English grammar.
- John might be promoted next year.
- She wants to be invited to the party.
- I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
- You may be disappointed.
PASSIVE VOICE WITH GERUNDS
Gerunds are used after prepositions and verbs normally followed by a gerund.
- I remember being taught to drive.
- The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
- The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
- Most film stars hate being interviewed.
- Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
- Poodles like to be pampered.
- Poodles like being pampered.
USING "TO BE BORN"
"To be born" is a passive form and is most commonly used in the past tense. However, in some cases, the present or future tense is appropriate.
- I was born in 1976.
- Where were you born?
- Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
- We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.
برخی اوقات برای ساختن جمله مجهول در زبان انگلیسی ازفعل get یا have بجای to be استفاده میشود. روشهای دیگر برای ساخت جملات مجهول را در زیر یاد بگیرید.
ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO FORM THE PASSIVE VOICE
You can form sentences that are passive in meaning but not in form by using the verb to get or the verb to have in place of the verb to be. These constructions often describe situations where we want someone else to do something for us or where we are going to hire someone else to do something for us. The subject is active, but he is only doing the "getting". It is the unnamed person who is gotten who will perform the action of the main verb in the sentence. That second person is not explicit in the sentence when the sentence has a passive meaning. We are more interested in the result of the activity than in the person that performs the activity.
- I must get my hair cut.
- I must have my hair cut.
- When are you going to get that window mended?
- We're having the house painted.
This type of construction can refer to the completion of an activity, especially if a time expression is used.
- We'll get the work done as soon as possible.
- I'll get those letters typed before lunchtime.
- She said she'd have my lunch delivered by noon.
- You should have your roof repaired before next winter.
If the verb refers to something unwanted, it has the same meaning as a passive sentence.
- Jim had his car stolen last night.
- Jim's car was stolen.
- They had their roof blown off in the storm.
- Their roof was blown off in the storm.
USING "TO NEED" IN PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
You can also use the verb to need followed by the gerund in an active construction with a passive meaning. The important thing in our minds in these sentences is the person or thing that will experience the action, not the person performing the action.
- The ceiling needs painting.
- The ceiling needs to be painted.
- My hair needs cutting.
- My hair needs to be cut.
- That faucet needs fixing.
- That faucet needs to be fixed.