آموزشگاه زبان آنلاین دکتر آرین کریمی در سعادت آباد ( فقط کلاس خصوصی )

 

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دوره خصوصی و نیمه خصوصی مکالمه زبان انگلیسی از طریق اسکایپ بصورت آنلاین و از راه دور

 

کلاس فشرده زبان با بهترین استاد زبان در تهران

 

یادگیری روش مطالعه زبان انگلیسی با دکتر آرین کریمی

 

آموزش زبان بصورت آنلاین با واتس آپ بصورت چت صوتی و تصویری

 

تدریس خصوصی مکالمه زبان در کوتاه ترین زمان برای سفر به خارج از کشور

 

آموزش رایگان گرامر زبان انگلیسی و نکات گرامری آیلتس در سایت دکتر آرین کریمی

 

روش بکاربردن not only and but also در رایتینگ آیلتس

 

IELTS GRAMMAR : Parallelism With Not Only But Also

 


When using not only . . . but also in a sentence, parallelism should be the goal.

 

It means that the words following both parts of this correlative conjunction (i.e., not only and but also) should belong to the same parts of speech. For example, if a verb follows not only, then a verb should also follow but also. Using different parts of speech after each part of not only . . . but also makes the sentence imbalanced and, frankly, just awkward. Consider the following examples :

He’s not only intelligent but also has a great sense of humor.

He’s not only intelligent but also funny.

Both sentences mean the same thing, but the first is imbalanced. The adjective intelligent follows not only, whereas the dependent phrase has a great sense of humor follows but also. In the second sentence, however, the adjectives intelligent and funny follow not only and but also, ensuring that the sentence is parallel.

 

Comma with Not Only . . . But Also

 

Should you use a comma with not only . . . but also? Not usually. Generally speaking, a comma should not be used to separate pairs of conjunctions in a correlative conjunction. As you may know, however, there are often exceptions to grammatical rules, especially when dealing with commas.

 

It’s correct to write the sentence this way, with no comma:

 

When writing, Ann considers not only her topic but also her audience.

 

But if you really want to show special emphasis, you can add a comma:

 

When writing, Ann considers not only her topic, but also her audience.

 

Have you ever thought you needed more balance in your life? These days, people talk a lot about achieving balance, whether it be moderating their diet or dividing their time between work and home. This concept of balance is not a new one, though. In fact, you can see the human inclination towards balance in most academic subjects including math, science, and yes—grammar! The usage of not only . . . but also is a good example. When using this correlative conjunction, it’s important to keep the notion of balance in mind; from a grammatical perspective, we call this idea parallelism.

یکبار برای همیشه حروف اضافه زبان انگلیسی و کاربردش را با دکتر آرین کریمی یاد بگیر!

 


برای تهیه این مقاله زمان زیادی صرف شده است . لطفا نظر دهی در انتهای مطلب فراموش نشود سپاسگزارم

 

 

روش افزایش نمره در رایتینگ آیلتس :

  

حروف اضافه در آیلتس چه کاربردی دارند ؟

 

چطور باید در رایتینگ آیلتس از حروف اضافه به درستی استفاده کرد و چرا به این میران در افزایش نمره آیلتس نقش دارند؟

  

حروف اضافه نقش مهمی در افزایش نمره آیلتس در مهارتهای مختلف آیلتس از جمله : رایتینگ ، ریدینگ ، لیستنینگ و حتی اسپیکینگ دارند چرا که جملات انگلیسی بدون حرف اضافه که به صورت درست و در جای مناسب بکار رفته باشد مفهومی ندارند و بصورت کلی افعال زبان انگلیسی از نظر حروف اضافه به 3 دسته تقسیم میشوند. دسته اول افعالی که حروف اضافه ندارند و باید به خاطر بسپاریم که اصلا حروف اضافه ای ندارند . دسته دوم افعالی که یک حرف اضافه دارند و باید آن را همراه فعال حذف کرد و دسته سوم افعالی که بیش از یک حرف اضافه دارند  که باید به خاطر سپرد که با حروف اضافه متفاوت معانی متفاوتی خواهند داشت و کاربری متفاوت خواهند داشت که به راحتی با نگاهی به مثالهای موجود در یک دیکشنری خوب مثل دیکشنری لانگمن یا دیکشنری کمبریج به راحتی میتوان آنها را فرا گرفت.

 

 

نکته مهم اینکه : معمولا حروف اضافه در دیکشنری های زبان انگلیسی بصورت بلد و برجسته مارک شده اند تا شما راحت تر بتوانید آنها را یاد بگیرید

 

 

آموزش رایگان گرامر پیشرفته آیلتس توسط دکتر آرین کریمی

 

( Advanced Grammar For IELTS By Dr.Arian Karimi : Prepositions )

 
 
مرجله اول : در این مقاله ابتدا یک آزمون تعیین سطح آیلتس و کاربرحروف اضافه در آزمون به شما داده شده که سطح فعلی گرامر خود را بخصوص در ارتباط با حروف اضافه و کاربرد درست آنها محک بزنید 
 
 
مرحله دوم : آموزش گرامر مورد نیاز در آزمون آیلنس جهت کسب نمره بالا در آیلتس و اهمیت حروف اضافه در آیلتس
 
 
مرحله سوم : تمارینی در رابط با حروف اضافه به شما داده شده تا اطمینان حاصل نمایید که این نکات گرامری را بخوبی فراگرفته اید.
 
 
 

Diagnose Test, Grammar Explanation & Practice Exercises

 

 

الف ) در این مرحله سطح پایه زبان خود و میزان آشنایی خود را با انجام این تست بسنجید

 

A      DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Prepositions

 

Example:

The animal spun round suddenly and hissed violently …………… me.

a to                  b by                 c at 

  1. We used to be able to hear the sonic boom of Concorde as it flew…….. the house.

a above          b over              c on top of

  1. Is the rank of sergeant…….. the rank of corporal in the British army?

a underneath             b behind          c below

  1. The Grand Bazaar……….. Istanbul is the largest covered market in the world.

a at                b in                  c by

  1. The Council is building a new office……………. the car park of the Multiplex cinema.

a at                b behind          c after

  1. The zookeeper was amazing – he calmly walked…….. the lion and took the bag out of its mouth.

a near                        b up to             c towards

  1. Your appointment with the consultant is at 6.30…………the evening of the 11th.

a in                b at                  c on

  1. The new soap opera on BBC2 is starting……….. tomorrow.

a at                b  –                   c on

  1. The walking tour will be leaving promptly ………………. time in order to cover the itinerary.

a on               b in                  c at

  1. Louis was unable to name one person……… all his acquaintances that he could truly call a friend.

a between      b under            c among

  1. The hotel’s bedding is made only…………. the finest cottons and linens.

a of                b in                  c with

  1. Well, ………….my opinion, our neighbours could be a lot noisier and more disruptive than they actually are.

a from                       b according to                         c in

  1. Despite………no rain for weeks, the garden appears to be flourishing.

a have                        b that we have had      c having

 

Six of these sentences contain mistakes with prepositions in bold. Tick (✓) the correct sentences, then find and correct the mistakes.

 

Example

 

The house was undamaged in the floods, except the carpets. ==> except for

 

  1. We had to put up with her moaning for the whole journey up to Glasgow!
  2. Harriet advanced to her position in the company by means some strategic friendships
  3. The post office is behind just the petrol station. You can’t miss it.
  4. Why don’t you go towards that police officer and ask him the way?
  5. The divorce became much more expensive and messier because of that solicitors became involved.
  6. From what they said on the weather forecast yesterday, we’re in for a good weekend.
  7. Apart from to dismantle the lighting, the band took only fifteen minutes to pack up.
  8. I’ve been offered the job in Helsinki for that I applied.

 

ب ) به نکات گرامری و نحوه کاربرد حروف اضافه در writing آیلتس توجه فرمایید.

 

B       GRAMMAR EXPLANATION: Prepositions

 

 کاربر حروف اضافه معمولا یکی از مواردی است که بیشتر زبان آموزان بخصوص کسانی که برای آزمون آیلتس آماده  میشوند در آن مشکل دارند و نیاز به یادگیری آن بصورت ریشه ای هستند. چرا که این حروف کاربردهای بسیار متعددی دارند.

 

Prepositions are a common cause of confusion for learners, often because each preposition has a number of different uses. In this paper is looking at the uses of a range of prepositions, and the  difficulties they can present.

 

یک حرف اضافه رابطه بین 2 یا چند چیز را مشخص میکند بطوری که میتواند اسامی ، افعال یا صفات قبل از خود را به اسم یا ضمیر بعد از خود ارتباط دهد. به مثالهای زیر توجه فرمایید :

 

A preposition describes the relationship between two or more things. It can link nouns, verbs or adjectives before the preposition with a noun or pronoun after it:

Now, let’s move on to  item six on the agenda.

Be careful. The hem of your dress is dragging along the floor

John’s got an appraisal tomorrow. He’s really anxious about it.

Prepositions can be one word only, e g. of, throughout, or more words, e.g. because of:

We got fewer dollars this week because of the drop in the exchange rate.

 

تفاوت حروف اضافه و قید ها

Prepositions and adverbs

 

در زبان انگلیسی از نظر ظاهری تفاوتی بین حروف اضافه و خیلی ازقید ها  نیست ولی از نظر کاربردی یک تفاوت بسیار مهم وجود دارد به طوری که یک حرف اضافه معمولا یک مفعول هم دارد ولی قیدها مفعول ندارند.

 

There is no difference in form between prepositions and many adverbs, but there is a difference in use: a preposition has an object but an adverb does not. Compare:

 

Did you ever travel before the war, Dad? (preposition)

I have a strange feeling that I’ve been here before. (adverb)

We can modify prepositions with adverbs (the adverbs in the example are in bold):

The pub is almost at the end of the street, just before the traffic lights.

 

 

معنی و کاربرد

MEANING AND USE

 

Position

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن ارتباط عمودی

 

vertical relationships above, after, below, beneath, down, on, on top of, over, under, underneath, up

 

 

above و over معانی یکسانی دارند و below و under هم همینطور. ما معمولا above or below را به راحتی در مثالهای زیر بکار میبریم :

 

Above and over have similar meanings, as do below and under. We usually use above or below:

 

The refuge is in the hills above the town.

The temperature was below freezing last night.

ولی over و under را فقط در موارد زیر بکار میبریم : 

1. وقتی یک چیز دیگری را میپوشاند.

2. وقتی حرکت افقی مد نظر هست.

3. زمانی که ما میخواهیم به کمتر یا بیشتر بودن در قیمت ، سن ، سرعت ، مسافت و کمیت اشاره نماییم.

 

But we use over or under in the following cases:

  • When one thing covers another: The clouds hung low over the hills. He disappeared under the water.
  • When horizontal movement is suggested: Are we going to fly over the Alps?
  • With prices, ages, speeds, distances and quantities, where we mean more than or fewer . less than:

 

مثال : 

 

X  The conference was very badly attended: below two hundred people came.

✓  The conference was very badly attended: under two hundred people came.

 

ما از above و below برای صحبت در مورد سطح یا مقام یک چیز استفاده میکنیم.

 

We use above or below to talk about ‘level’ or ‘rank’:

 

Is the position of Managing Editor above or below that of Editorial Director?

It is also possible to use after in this sense:

His opinion is second only after the Managing Director’s.

 

به کاربرد up و down توجه فرمایید

Note the use of up and down:

 

John lives a few houses further up/down the hill from us. 

We generally use beneath in idiomatic phrases:

Your behaviour towards my new husband was really beneath contempt!

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن ارتباط افقی

 

horizontal relationships against, along, alongside, around, at, beside, between, by, in, near, next to, on, on the left/ right of

 

 

We use at with a point in space, e.g. at the bus stop, at 8 Baker Street;

We use on with a surface or a line, e.g. on the table, on the river, on Oxford Street;

We use in with something that surrounds, e.g. in the wood.

We use different prepositions depending on how we see a place. Compare:

The group will meet at 7.30 at the sports centre. (= either inside or outside)

The group will meet at 7.30 in the sports centre. (= inside)

 

Note: Also: at the corner of the street (= a point) but in the corner of the room (= inside).

 

We usually use in with countries, cities or towns.

We use on with streets, roads, avenues, etc.,

We use at with the names of squares if we think of the ‘address’, and in if we think of the square as ‘surrounding’ us:

 

e.g.

 

X  The film premiere this year will take place on Leicester Square at London.

✓ The film premiere this year will take place at Leicester Square in London.

 

The trees in Leicester Square don’t look very healthy.

 

We use at when we refer to gatherings of people: at a party, at a conference.

 

We use beside and alongside to express proximity along a line:

Warehouses were built beside /alongside the motorway.

 

 لیست حروف اضافه و کاربرد آنها برای نشان دادن ارتباط و برخورد مستقیم

 

‘facing’ relationships across, after, before, behind, facing, in front of, opposite, over

 

 

We use in front of or behind to describe the spatial relationship of two things, one after the other on a line and facing the same way:

 

A is in front of B, B is behind A.         

 

In front of and behind can also be used for metaphorical, not literal, position:

 

Christopher is really behind his brother in terms of academic development.

Before and after can refer to position in some contexts:

Karen’s nephew appears before I in front of the magistrates this afternoon.

You ‘ll be called first as my name is after yours on the list.

 

Opposite, facing, across and over have the meaning of on the other side of but with across and over we have to state on the other side of what, e.g. a road, a river:

 

I’ll meet you in the café opposite I facing the theatre. (= on the other side of the road)

I’ll meet you in the café across lover the road from the theatre.

 

Note: The difference between opposite / facing and in front of is that the items on the ’line’ are not facing in the same direction, as in the diagram above, but are facing each other:

 

A is facing/ opposite B. A and B are facing /opposite each other.

 

کاربرد حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن حرکت و جهت 

 

Movement and direction

 

لیست حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن حرکت عمودی

 

 

vertical movement down (to), off, on, onto, over, up (to) 

 

 

We use these prepositions for movement up or down:

 

Keep to the right as you go down the stairs.

Look at Johnny’s knee – he’s just fallen off his bike.

We get on or off a bus, plane, train, boat and bike but into and out of a car.

We can use over for a movement up and then down an obstacle:

The burglar leapt over the garden fence as he ran away from us.

 

لیست حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن گذشتن از جایی یا مسیری

 

passing movement across, along, down, over, past, through, up

 

 

 

We use along for movement In a line, e g. along a river/ road:

 

You can spend a pleasant afternoon strolling along the canals in Amsterdam.

We also often use up and down with roads and rivers (meaning ‘along’):

Go up the road to the corner, and the cinema is on the left.

 

We use across for movement from one side to the other of something on a ‘surface’, e.g. across the river/ road/field. We use through for movement inside something, e.g. through a room/ tunnel:

 

You walk across the playing field to the wood then you go through the wood …

Over is similar to across (one side to the other) but it incorporates the idea of above:

Are we going to fly over the Alps on the way to Italy?

We use past for a movement from one side to the other of something, next to it:

I was startled by a huge bird that flew past my window this afternoon.

 

 لیست حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن حرکت از یک سو به سوی دیگر مثل پرتاب کردن و کابرد آنها

 

 

movement in one direction around, at, away from, down, down to, from, into, onto, out of, to, towards, up, up to

 

 

We can use both to and at after certain verbs, e.g. throw, shout. To suggests that the recipient of the action is willing but at that he/she is not willing:

 

Can you throw that book to me, please ? (I am willing.)

Don’t throw stones at the cat! (The cat is unwilling.)

 

We can use up to or towards when we approach someone or something, but we use only up to if we actually reach the person/thing:

 

X Do you think I can go towards him and ask for his autograph?

✓ Do you think I can go up to him and ask for his autograph?

✓The scientist moved quietly towards the group of grazing animals.

 

We can use up (to) and down (to) for movement north or south within a country:

 

We’ve just come down to Canberra from Darwin.

We can express a circular movement with (a)round:

We drove (a)round the roundabout three times before we took the correct exit.

 

We can also use the prepositions of movement in a less literal way:

 

A system of charges has been introduced into the Health Service.

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن زمان

Prepositions of Time

 

 

point in time at, in, on

 

 

We use at with times, special periods (e.g. celebrations) and in some phrases: at five to seven, at Christmas, at night, at the weekend (US English on the weekend)

We use in with parts of the day, months, seasons, years, centuries, etc.: in the evening, in December, in 1999, in the winter, in the twentieth century

We use on with days and dates, including special days: on Thursday, on (the morning of) the 31st of October, on Christmas Day

We sometimes omit the preposition if we use about or around, to be less specific:

Let’s meet at the station (at) about six; there’s a train at ten past.

We can supply the materials (on) around Thursday next week.

 

In US English and informal British English, we can also omit on before days:

 

Great news! The travel agent can get us on a flight that leaves Wednesday

We do not use the prepositions at, on or in immediately before adverbs or adverbial phrases such as today, tomorrow, last / this/ next week:

X  The new soap opera on BBC2 is starting on tomorrow.

✓ The new soap opera on BBC2 is starting tomorrow.

 

 

before or after after, before, by, past

 

 

We can use after or past to mean ‘later than’:

 

There’s no point in going to the party now; it’s after / past eleven o’clock.

We use before to mean ‘before a time’, and we use by to mean ‘before or at a time’:

Applications must be submitted before 30th November. (= on the 29th or earlier)

Applications must be submitted by 30th November. (= on the 30th or earlier)

Note: The adverbial phrases in time (with time to spare) and on time (at the right time, often fixed) have different meanings:

The wedding car arrived in time but the bride wasn’t ready. (= time to spare)

I want to arrive right on time at the church. It’s not done for the bride to arrive before the groom. (= not early or late)

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن یک دوره یا طول انجام کار

 

duration as from / of, between, during, for, from … till/until/up to, in, inside, since, through (out), until/till, up to, within

 

 

We can use a number of different prepositions to talk about duration:

 

As of next Monday, we will have to suspend flexible working arrangements until further notice.

The long flowing style – of hair and clothes – was fashionable during/ through(out) much of the seventies.

This volcano hasn’t erupted since 1935.

The motorway widening was successfully completed within/in/inside four months.

 

British English uses from … to to express the start and end points of a period of time, but US English uses through:

 

I ’ll be staying at the Hilton from Friday to Monday.

I’ll be staying at the Hilton Friday through Monday.

 

Other meanings

 

 

reason because of, due to, for, from, out of, owing to, through

 

 

The 10.00 service to Bath has been cancelled due to /owing to staff shortage.

Huge numbers of people in the Third World die from starvation every day.

Many parents sacrifice their own material wealth out of the desire to give their children everything.

The fire started through careless disposal of a cigarette end.

 

 

means by, by means of, in, via, with

 

 

We use by or with to introduce an instrument:

 

Negotiations were held by phone between the client and his solicitor.

The victim was killed by a bullet to the head/ with a sawn-off shotgun.

We also use by for the agent (or originator) of something:

It’s a painting by Van Gogh. He completed it during his stay in Arles.

 

Note the difference between by and of here:

 

It’s a painting of Van Gogh. It’s actually not a very good likeness of him.

 

We use in when we refer to the means we use to achieve something:

 

Complete the form in pencil. He prefers to paint in watercolour.

 

 

purpose for,  towards

 

 

I want an opener that can be used for opening bottles of beer as well as wine.

 

We’re saving all of this extra income towards a round-the-world trip next year.

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن وجه اشتراک یا تفاوت بین دو یا چند چیز

 

comparison against, as, beside, between, contrary to, than, (un)like

 

 

 We use against, beside and contrary to to make a contrast:

 

Look at this year’s sales figures against last year’s; they’re so much better.

Beside her sister, Laura was positively plain.

The Davis Cup final was won by the French team, contrary to expectations.

 

We use between to differentiate (usually the difference between):

 

You won’t be able to tell the difference between butter and this spread.

We can use like to make a comparison, but we use as to express a role:

She behaves like a director, but she’s really only a secretary.

Speaking as a director of the company, I believe we should sell the shares.

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن شمول یا عدم شمول

 

inclusion and exclusion among, as well as, besides, between, beyond, inside, instead of, out of, outside, under, within, without

 

We usually use between with only two objects and among with more than two:

 

For women, the distinction between work and leisure is less clear-cut.

The terminals are among the biggest single development sites in Europe.

 

Note the uses of the following prepositions which have the meaning of exclusion:

 

Are there any issues remaining besides that of the roof repairs?

I’m afraid that changes to the curriculum are beyond I outside I out of our control.

 

حروف اضافه برای نشان دادن استثناعات

 

exception apart from, barring, but for, except (for), save

 

Everyone is invited to the conference dinner, except (for)/apart from/save those who have bought ‘day’ tickets only.

Except and except for can both be used after phrases containing determiners such as all, every, no:

Julian did very well in all his exams except (for) geography.

Except for one question on calculus, Julian got all the maths questions right.

 

However, when the prepositional phrase contradicts the main idea of the sentence, we use except for:

 

Trulli emerged from the wreckage of the car uninjured except for a broken thumb.

 

We use but for to mean ‘if not for’:

 

The house would have been destroyed but for the quick thinking of the firefighters.

 

 

دسته لغاتی که در زبان انگلیسی تضاد را نشان میدهند

 

 

contrast despite, for all, in spite of

  

 

Despite/In spite of/ For all his grand ways, he was really no better off than the rest of us.

 

 

حروف اضافه ای که برای نشان دادن جنس یک شی بکار میروند

 

 

material from, of, out of, with

 

 

We use different prepositions when we describe the material from which something is made (made (out) of, made from, made with)

 

We use of when the original material is still visible:

 

a dress made of silk                 a jacket made of leather          a table of the finest mahogany

We use from when the original material has been transformed:

ice cream made from strawberries                   toilet rolls made from recycled paper

 

We use with when we refer to a filling or an ingredient:

 

vine leaves stuffed with rice                             rice pudding made with cream

We use of in metaphorical phrases:

a man of iron                                                   a heart of gold

 

 

حروف اضافه ای که سود و منفعت را نشان میدهند

 

 

benefit for, for the sake of, on behalf of

 

 

On behalf of our shareholders, I’d like to thank all of you who voted in favour of the merger.

I think we should move to the country for the sake of the children.

 

 

   reporting     according to

 

We do not use  "according to"  to report our own feelings or opinions:

 

X  Holograms aren’t a real art form, according to me.

✓ According to many art critics, holograms aren’t a real art form.

✓ Holograms aren’t a real art form, in my opinion.

 

 

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

 

Form

 

A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and the word(s) that follow it. The most common words that follow prepositions are nouns and pronouns:

sleep on  the floor        comparisons between Clinton and Kennedy               it’s for you

 

We can also use -ing forms, adverbs or wh- clauses after prepositions:

 

As well as helping us to move into the house, John bought us a great present.

Please don’t interfere in any way with what I have written in the introduction.

A prepositional phrase can include a determiner before the noun or -ing form:

The head teacher doesn’t approve of his arrangement with a local band.

 

We can’t use a that clause after a preposition:

 

X The government managed to pass the bill through Parliament, despite that it had a low majority.

✓ The government managed to pass the bill through Parliament, despite its low majority/despite having a low majority/despite the fact that it had a low majority.

Nor can we use an infinitive phrase, except with the prepositions except, but and savePlease come straight home – don’t stop except to phone us.

 

Stranded preposition

 

A ‘stranded preposition’ is a preposition on its own at the end of a clause or sentence. English commonly uses stranded prepositions in:

 

  • Questions: Who are you coming to the party with?
  • Relative clauses: I’ve been offered the job in London that I applied for!
  • The passive: What is your coat made from?
  • Infinitive clauses: That man is impossible to work with!

We sometimes keep the preposition and object together in formal language:

We have been unable to offer you the position for which you applied.

Note: We do not precede the relative pronoun that with a preposition:

X  We have been unable to offer you the position for that you applied.

 

ج ) تمرین و ممارست

 

C       PRACTICE EXERCISE

 

Q 1. Rewrite the sentences. Put the words in brackets in the correct order.

 

  1. The people in the earthquake zone were encouraged to [area/away/from/get/the] while there was still time.
  2. Water will be made available [and/crisis/for/hospitals/schools/the/throughout].
  3. The acting and the costumes were excellent, [as/but/for/plot/the], it was ridiculous!
  4. It must have been raining really hard. All [are/through/passers-by/soaked/the].
  5. This year’s award for excellence in the industry will be collected (behalf/of/on/winner/the) by the chairman of the Design Foundation
  6. The rescuers pulled the dog [a/by/from/means/of/rope/the/well].
  7. Can you pass me the pasta pan? It’s [cupboard/of/on/right/the/top].
  8. The journey time has been reduced [hours/just/three/to/under].
  9. ‘You’re late. You weren’t on the train that was derailed, were you?’ ‘No, [one/after/the/mine/just/was]
  10. Didn’t you recognise her? She was sitting [almost/beard/man/opposite/the/the/with].

 

Q 2. Underline the best alternative in bold.

 

  1. Our son, James Christopher, was born in/on the morning of 2nd March.
  2. Don’t forget that your final assignment must be handed to your tutor – /on next Monday.
  3. The soldiers didn’t arrive at the village on/in time – the rebels had already burned the remaining houses.
  4. Don’t be late for the Philharmonia concert – you know they always start dead on/in time.
  5. There has been no sign of the birds until/since nightfall.
  6. David Mamet’s latest play will be showing on Broadway October up to/through December.
  7. Payment of your electricity bill is now four weeks overdue. If we do not receive payment on/ by 31st July, we shall refer the matter to the court.
  8. As he opened the shop at 7.30 in the morning, Mr Charles was attacked by/with a baseball bat.
  9. The definitive photograph of/ by Marilyn Monroe is the one where she is standing over an air vent.
  10. Alexander Graham Bell worked as/like a teacher for much of his life.
  11. It was impossible to find anything of importance between/among the dead man’s papers.
  12. It is the duty of governments today to take seriously the threat of global warming, in spite of/ for the sake of future generations.
  13. Except/ Apart for a few less experienced individuals, all of the recent applicants were taken on.
  14. This publication is made of/ from paper from sustainable forests.
  15. Letters of application for this post should be completed in/with handwriting.

 

Q 3. Complete the following article with the most appropriate prepositions. The preposition may consist of more than one word. The exercise begins with an example (0).

 

End of the road

 

It was late afternoon when we drove (0)…into…. the little town. We had driven (1)……. 400 kilometres in the morning and most of it had been (2)………… thick fog. We were tired and decided to find a hotel – we didn’t know how far it might be to the next town. We parked, got (3)……. the car and stretched – a walk would be very welcome. We left our luggage (4)……..the car boot and walked (5)………          the already empty car park to a narrow but fast-flowing stream. A five-minute stroll (6)……… a tree-lined avenue (7)………. the stream took us (8)……….. the town square. It was a beautiful old square with a fountain (9)………..the middle and arcades (10)…………three sides. We looked up at terraces of interesting-looking restaurants (11)……………the arcades and then back down at entrances to fascinating little shops (12)…………them.

We had no idea where to look for a hotel or a pension in this sleepy town, so we walked (13)…………. an old man sitting (14)………..a bench by the fountain. He pointed us in the direction of a narrow alleyway and told us we’d find the best hotel (15)………….the little road. It seemed unlikely, but we followed his advice and sure enough, (16)    the other end of the alleyway, (17)………two picturesque old houses, was a sign saying ‘hotel . Just (18)…………. the hotel, (19)…………. the other side of the street, was a house covered in the most colourful flowers, and I immediately hoped that we might be able to see the house from our bedroom window. (20)…………. the hotel reception, a cool, dark room with a bar (21)……… one corner, we asked about a room. Our satisfaction was complete when we realised that even the best room in the hotel was (22)……… $50.

We looked at the room, decided to take it and went down to the lounge, where we stopped for a delicious cappuccino. Soon dusk was falling, so we handed the room key (23)………… the receptionist and told him we’d be back with our luggage in ten minutes. As we walked (24)……….the narrow streets, we discussed what we would do the next day and how long we’d stay in the little town. Imagine our horror when we arrived (25)………the car park to find it completely empty – our car and all of our luggage had been stolen!

 

Q 4. In most of the lines of the following text, there is one word or phrase missing. For each line 1-14, indicate where the word should be (use /) and write the missing word in the spaces on the right. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick (✓). The exercise begins with two examples (0 and 00).

 

0          One of the changes in entertainment in recent years has been the arrival of              ✓

00        alternative comedy. In this type of comedy, performers work with/is considered …what..

1          to be taboo or controversial. It’s a very strong kind of humour, the main aim

2          which is the desire to shock people out their comfortable complacent lives and

3          make them think about is Important in life today. Some of the most common

4          subject areas that alternative comedians work are politics, sex and religion.

5          Alternative comedy takes place mainly in adult clubs and comedy venues;

6          because of the that it questions and threatens the establishment, public TV

7          channels have been reluctant to give it much air time, except try to boost ratings

8          occasionally among certain audience sectors. In fact, whenever alternative

9          comedy has appeared on prime time TV, viewers with children have complained

10        about being somehow corrupted by the nature of the humour. Of course, this

11        kind of comedy is not intended for children at all, nor is it really the older,

12        established families with children that it is aimed. Fortunately for alternative

13        comedians, the section of society it is intended – younger people who themselves

14        question the values and priorities of society – continue to support it.

 

Q 5. Underline the correct word or phrase in bold. In some cases, both may be correct.

 

No, you’re not looking at a scene (1) from / out of a James Bond movie! The futuristic buildings in this photo really exist. They are part of the Eden Project – one of the most spectacular (2) in/ of the Millennium projects.

The Eden Project is located (3) at/ in Cornwall, England, in a former clay pit (4) above/over 50 metres deep. It consists of two enormous domes, a large open area and a visitor centre. The Eden Project functions (5) as/like a ‘storeroom’ for a huge number of plants from (6) across/ all over the world. The two collections of domes house plants and trees (7) from/for the tropical and temperate regions (8) of/ in the world, while the open area accommodates more local species.

The Eden Project is much more (9) as/ than a storeroom, however. It is a centre (10) for/ on education, art and science, showing us ways in (11) which/that plants are vital to the world’s existence, and promoting understanding of the delicate balance (12) between/ among using and conserving plant life. As well as (13) offer/ offering a visitor attraction (14) to/ for people of all ages, the Eden Project provides a focus both for scientific research and for education, (15) including/ inside exciting experiences for children, such as walking (16) through/ in a rainforest (17) outside /without leaving England.

In the year 2000, the Eden Project was in the final stages (18) at/ of construction. (19) Contrary to/Unlike most projects of this scale, the Eden Project opened its doors to visitors (20) for/during that building stage. (21) For/ Since several months visitors were able to experience the challenges that lie (22) under/behind the building of such a project and get a taste of (23) what/which was to come. (24) From/ ln spring 2001 this living theatre opened fully to the public and for (25) under/ below £10, everyone can now experience the diversity of the world’s plants.

 

Q 6. Prepositions are missing from the following three stories. Use the prepositions in the box above each story to fill the gaps.

 

according to                across              between           by        from       in         on        to

 

A BAD EXPLORER

 

A man (1)……Kentucky, USA, had a dream that would take him away from the rolling hills of his home state. The dream: to row (2)…….. the icy Bering Strait (3)……….Alaska and Russia, (4)………….. a bathtub! Unfortunately, the dream was not completely fulfilled. (5)……….the explorer. ‘I took four gallons of peanut butter along, but (6) ……….the morning of the fourth day, it had gone solid. (7)………….late afternoon, although the sun was still high, the sea went rather thick. Next morning I was frozen in.’ No problem. He abandoned the bathtub and walked (8)…………. land.

 

at         behind             in         instead of        into      like               under           with

 

Some stupid thieves

 

(9)…………..the town of Vang, Norway, a group of professional thieves were carrying out a carefully planned robbery. Everything was going (10)………. clockwork. They broke into a company (11)………night, located the safe and set up some explosives that would blow the door of the safe off, allowing them to get to the money inside. After setting the fuse, they ran (12)……….the next room, crouched (13)……….. the wall and waited for the explosion. It came a few seconds later. The safe door was blown off So was the roof. In fact, the entire building collapsed, trapping the robbers, still crouching in the next office, (14)………… the rubble of the destroyed building. There had been just one problem they had not foreseen: (15)……….. money, the safe had been filled (16)…………. dynamite.

 

 

about   against             along   at         between           during              in         in         into      of             off       on        on        on        on        with

 

 

Self-help crime prevention

 

A Western businessman living (17)………..Japan had been warned (18)…………pickpockets in the Tokyo subways. These notorious thieves operated (19)………. the crowded rush hour. They had a habit (20)…………. grabbing wallets just as the subway doors were closing, leaving the victim helpless (21)………. the train while they disappeared with the loot.

One morning the businessman was (22)………….. his usual subway stop when the train pulled in. He got on, and sure enough, just as the train doors were about to close, he felt a man rub (23)……….. him. In a panic, the businessman reached for his wallet. It was gone! He looked up as the doors began to close and saw that a man had just got (24)……… the train. The man was looking at him triumphantly.

Thinking fast, the businessman pushed his hands (25)…………..the closing doors and grabbed the thief’s jacket. The doors closed, with the thief still (26)…………the platform but (27)……………the lapels of his jacket trapped (28)………….. the tight grip of the businessman. As the train began to pull away, the expression (29)……………..the thief’s face changed. He began screaming as he ran (30)…………..the platform with the train. Finally, he held onto a post and his lapels tore away from his jacket. As the train moved (31)………….the tunnel, the businessman was satisfied that at least he had frightened the thief.

When he reached his office, he called his wife to get his credit card numbers so he could cancel them. ‘But honey,’ she said, ‘I’ve been waiting to call you. You left your wallet (32)………….the dressing table when you went to work today.’

 

D       ANSWER KEY FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST

 

1          b

2          c

3          b

4          b

5          b

6          c

7          b

8          a

9          c

10        a

11        c

12        c

13        ✓

14        by means of

15        just behind

16        up to

17        because of the solicitors’ involvement/because (of the fact that) solicitors became involved

18        ✓

19        Apart from dismantling the lighting,

20        that I applied for/for which I applied

 

E       ANSWER KEY FOR PRACTICE EXERCISE

 

Q 1.

1 get away from the area

2 for schools and hospitals/ hospitals and schools throughout the crisis

3 but as for the plot

4 the passers-by are soaked through

5 on behalf of the winner

6 from the well by means of a rope

7 right on top of the cupboard

8 to just under three hours

9 mine was the one just after

10 almost opposite the man with the beard

 

Q 2.

 

1 on

2 – 3 in

4 on

5 since

6 through

7 by

8 with

9   of

10 as

11 among

12 for the sake of

13 Except

14 from

15 in

 

Q 3.

 

1 over

2 through/in

3 out of

4 in

5 across

6 along

7 by/next to

8 into/to

9 in

10 on/around   

11 on top of/above

12 under(neath)/ beneath/ below

13 up to

14 on

15 up/down/in

16 at

17 between/ opposite

18 opposite

19 on

20 In/At

21 in

22 under

23 to

24 through/along

25 at

 

Q 4.

 

1 main aim which => main aim of which

2 people out their => people out of their

3 about is => about what is

4 comedians work are => comedians work with/on are

5 ✓

6 the-that => the fact that

7 except try => except to try

8 ✓

9 ✓

10 about being => about them being

11 ✓

12 it is aimed => it is aimed at

13 it is intended => it is intended for

14 ✓

 

Q 5.

 

1 from/out of

2 of

3 in

4 over

5 as 

6 across/all over

7 from

8 of/in

9 than

10 for 

11 which

12 between

13 offering

14 to/for

15 including 

16 through/in

17 without

18 of

19 Unlike

20 for/during 

21 For

22 behind

23 what

23 From/ln

25 under 

 

Q 6.

 

1 from

2 across

3 between

4 in

5 According to

6 on

7 By

8 to

9 In

10 like

11 at

12 into

13 behind

14 under

15 instead of

16 with

17 in

18 about

19 during

20 of

21 on

22 at

23 against

24 off

25 between

26 on

27 with

28 in

29 on

30 along

31 into

32 on

آموزش رایگان گرامر زبان انگلیسی در سایت رسمی دکتر آرین کریمی بهترین استاد زبان ایران

 

گرامر و روش به کار بردن  Despite and in spite of در زبان و جملات انگلیسی

 

 

Despite and in spite of mean exactly the same, but despite is more common than in spite of.

Despite and in spite of are prepositions. Both expressions can be followed by a noun or noun-equivalent.

 

I enjoyed the movie despite having a headache.

OR I enjoyed the movie in spite of having a headache.

 

Both expressions are used for saying that something happens although something else might have prevented it.

 

The government went ahead with its decision to build the nuclear power station despite / in spite of widespread opposition.

 

Despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that

 

Despite and in spite of cannot be directly followed by a that-clause. Before a that-clause, we use the expression the fact.

 

He still loves her despite the fact that she cheated on him.

OR He still loves her in spite of the fact that she cheated on him.

 

Many people are successful despite the fact that they do not have a university degree. (NOT Many people are successful despite that they do not have a university degree.)

 

Despite yourself

 

To do something despite yourself is to do it even though you didn’t intend to.

The boy found the money on the table and took it despite himself. (The boy had no intention to take the money; he took it, nonetheless.)

 

Notes

 

Never use of after despite. Always use of after in spite.

 

We enjoyed the evening despite the bad weather.

OR We enjoyed the evening in spite of the bad weather.

She always looks cheerful in spite of / despite her problems.

 

The same ideas can be expressed using though and although.

 

We enjoyed the evening though / although the weather was bad.

She always looks cheerful though / although she has many problems.

 

Note that though and although are conjunctions. They should be followed by a clause.

زمان حال کامل

 

1- برای بيان عملی که در گذشته آغاز شده و همچنان ادامه دارد:


• I have studied English since 1990.


(از سال 1990 به مطالعه انگليسی پرداخته‌ام)


• She's lived in Tehran for 10 years.


(او به مدت 10 سال در تهران زندگی کرده است)


• How long have you lived in Tehran?


(چه مدتی در تهران زندگی کرده‌ايد؟)


• I've lived in Tehran all my life.


(همه عمرم را در تهران زندگی کرده‌ام)

 

نکته:

 

توجه‌ داشته ‌باشيد که در زمان حال کامل، غالباً از اصطلاحات زمانی خاصی مانند since و for استفاده می‌شود.

for نشان دهنده دوره‌ای از زمان است که تا کنون ادامه داشته است، ولی since با مقطعی از زمان به کار می‌رود و به معنی «از آن زمان تا کنون» می‌باشد:

 

 

seven o'clock
1980
September
last week

since

a year
two months
three hours
ten minutes

for I have been here

 

 

2- برای بیان تجربه‌ای که در زمانی در زندگی شخصی اتفاق افتاده است. در واقع اين عمل در گذشته روی داده و به پايان رسيده است، اما آثار آن هنوز محسوس است. اين که اين عمل يا تجربه چه موقعی روی داده، مهم نيست:


• I have never been to England.


(من هرگز به انگلستان نرفته‌ام)


• She has had several operations up to now.


(تا کنون چندين عمل جراحی داشته است)


• He's written a lot of short stories.


(او داستانهای کوتاه زيادی نوشته است)



3- برای بيان عملی که در گذشته نزديک اتفاق افتاده ولی اثر آن در زمان حال مشاهده می‌شود. در اين حالت از yet، already، still و just بسيار استفاده می‌کنيم:

 

توجه


از already بيشتر در جملات مثبت و از yet بيشتر در جملات منفی و پرسشی استفاده می‌شود.

I've just had a sandwich. (من تازه يک ساندويچ خورده‌ام)
I've already seen the movie. (اين فيلم را قبلاً ديده‌ام)
• The bus hasn't arrived yet. (اتوبوس هنوز نرسيده است)
• I still haven't finished my homework. (هنوز تکاليفم را تمام نکرده‌ام)

چند نکته


1- اگر ارتباطی با زمان حال موجود نيست (مثلاًچيزهايی که مدتها قبل اتفاق افتاده‌اند) از حال کامل استفاده نکنيد.


Hafiz was a Persian poet. He wrote many poems.
• but: My father is a writer. He has written many books.


در مثال اول از گذشته ساده استفاده کرديم تا نشان دهيم که او (حافظ) ديگر شعر نمي‌نويسد، ولی در مثال دوم برای اينکه نشان دهيم که او هنوز کتاب می‌نويسد از حال کامل استفاده کرديم.


2- ما از حال کامل بری ارائه اطلاعات جديد استفاده مي‌کنيم. ولی اگر بخواهيم به صحبتمان درباره آن ادامه دهيم، معمولاً از گذشته ساده استفاده می‌کنيم:


A: "Ben has broken his leg."
B: "Really? How did that happen?"
A: "He fell off a ladder."

کاربرد

 جملات مثبت و منفی

past participle

(قسمت سوم فعل)
have ('ve)
have not (haven't)
I, you, we, they
has ('s)
has not (hasn't)
he, she, it

 جملات پرسشی

past participle?

(قسمت سوم فعل)
I, you, we, they  have
 he, she, it  has

چند مثال 

 


• We've been to Paris.
• He hasn't lived in Paris.
Have you met him yet?

 آموزش رایگان گرامر زبان انگلیسی در سایت دکتر آرین کریمی

 

زمان حال استمراری در زبان انگلیسی (Present continuous)

 

براي بيان عملی که هم‌اکنون جريان دارد:

She is watching the TV.
He is working at the moment.

 

برای بيان عملی يا موقعيتی که در حال حاضر در حال وقوع مي‌باشد، اما الزاماً در همين زمان صحبت کردن در حال رخ دادن نيست:

I'm reading an exciting book.
He is learning Arabic.

 

توجه


شخص گوينده ممکن است در همين لحظه مشغول مطالعه کتاب باشد و يا اينکه ممکن است منظورش اين باشد که مدتی است مشغول مطالعه کتاب است ولی هنوز تمام نشده است.

 


برای بيان قراری تعيين شده در آينده:

 

am meeting him at the park.

 

 

برای بيان كار يا شرايطی موقتی:

 

I'm living in a small flat now, but I'm trying to find a better one.

در حال حاضر در يک آپارتمان کوچک زندگی می‌کنم، اما دارم سعی می‌کنم يک بهترش را پيدا کنم.

 

 


ساختار

  

coming

doing

going

taking

'm

am

I

're

are

You

We

they

's

is

he

she

it

 
 
 

نكاتی در مورد هجی (افعال ing دار):


1- افعالی که به يک e ختم می‌شوند، آن e حذف می‌شود:


come, coming     take, taking     write, writing


ولی در مورد افعالی که به ee ختم می‌شوند، اين قاعده صدق نمی‌کند:


agree, agreeing     see, seeing


2- در افعال يک بخشی (يک هجايی) که دارای يک حرف صدادار و يک حرف بی‌صدا می‌باشند، حرف بی‌صدای آخر تکرار می‌شود:


running, stopping, getting


ولی چنانچه حرف بی‌صدای آخر y يا w باشد، تکرار نمی‌شود:


showing, enjoying

تماس ( تا 12 شب )

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 Info email2 arian-ielts.com

ایران - تهران -سعادت آباد - میدان سرو

 

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